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How Dividends are Taxed in the UK: A Guide for 2023/24


In this guide, we will cover everything you need to know about dividend taxation in the UK for the upcoming tax year of 2023/24, including the latest UK dividend tax rates. We will start by explaining what dividends are and who can receive them. We will then delve into dividend allowances and tax rates, including recent changes over the years. Let's dive in.


How Dividends are Taxed in the UK: A Guide for 2023/24

Dividends are a great way to earn passive income from your investments. However, it is important to understand how dividends are taxed in the UK to avoid any surprises come tax season.

Understanding Dividends

Dividends represent a way for companies to share their profits with shareholders, including company owners, through cash, additional shares, or other property. Investing in dividend-paying stocks offers a steady income stream, making it an efficient way to earn from savings.

What are Dividends?

Dividends are a way for companies to distribute their profits to shareholders. They can be in the form of cash, shares, or property. Dividends provide investors with income and can also be reinvested for long-term growth. They are typically paid out quarterly or annually.

Who can Receive Dividends?

Eligible recipients of dividends include shareholders, whether individual investors, institutional investors, or company owners. Dividends can be received by investors of all ages, making them a source of income for various demographics. This income can come from dividend-paying stocks, mutual funds, or ETFs.

Dividend Allowance

The dividend allowance, an efficient way to reduce tax liability, allows individuals to receive tax-free dividend income in a tax year. As of 2021, the allowance stands at £2,000. Any dividend income exceeding this amount is taxable at different rates based on the taxpayer's total income, making it a valuable consideration for managing one's tax bill.

Understanding Dividend Allowance

The tax-free dividend allowance, also known as the rate band, aims to ease the tax burden on small investors. It's designed to be tax-efficient for basic and higher rate taxpayers. This allowance applies individually, allowing couples to combine their allowances for tax savings. Understanding this allowance is crucial as it impacts the tax payable on dividend income and changes can affect individuals' dividend tax payments.

Changes in Dividend Allowance Over the Years

The dividend allowance has evolved, impacting tax liabilities on dividend income. In 2016, the tax-free dividend allowance stood at £5,000, offering significant tax savings. However, it was reduced to £2,000 in 2018, affecting the tax responsibility of dividend recipients. Historical awareness of these changes is crucial for understanding the tax impact of dividend income.

Dividend Tax Rates

Dividend tax rates determine the tax on dividend income and vary with the taxpayer's total income, tax band, and dividend amount. Rates differ for basic, higher, and additional rate taxpayers, and are lower than those on salary or wages. Understanding these rates is crucial for accurate tax liability calculation.

Current Dividend Tax Rates in the UK

As of the 2023/2024 tax year, basic rate taxpayers who recieve a salary (£12,571 - £50,270) between incur a 8.75% tax on dividend income exceeding the allowance. Meanwhile, higher rate (£50,271 - £125,139) and additional rate taxpayers (£125,140+) face 32.5% and 38.1% tax, respectively, on such income. These rates apply once dividend income surpasses the tax-free dividend allowance of £1,000. Understanding these current dividend tax rates is vital for accurate tax assessments.

How are Dividend Tax Rates Determined?

Dividend tax rates are determined based on factors such as the taxpayer's total income, tax band, and dividend income amount. The rates vary for different tax bands, such as basic rate, higher rate, and additional rate taxpayers. Understanding how dividend tax rates are calculated helps individuals plan their taxes effectively.

Paying Taxes on Dividends

Taxpayers are required to report dividend income and fulfill tax obligations through self-assessment. This income, combined with other sources, is stated in the tax return to determine total tax due. The amount of tax due on dividends depends on the taxpayer's total taxable income, tax rates, and bands. Accurate reporting and tax payment for dividend income is a legal requirement. Understanding this process is vital to comply with tax regulations.

When is Dividend Tax Payable?

Dividend tax is payable when your dividend income exceeds the dividend allowance. It's important to note that dividends are taxable in the tax year they're received, not when they're declared. If your total income exceeds the personal allowance, you will need to pay tax on dividends. The tax rates for dividend income depend on which tax band your income falls into.

Procedures for Paying Taxes on Dividends

Taxpayers perform self-assessment to declare dividend income in a tax return. The dividend tax due is calculated based on total taxable income, including dividends, using income tax rates. This tax is then included in the total tax bill. Individuals can pay their dividend tax online, by phone, or by post.


Dividends from Different Sources

Dividend income from UK companies is subject to personal tax allowance, while income from foreign companies follows source of income rules. Tax rates apply to both, impacting the tax band and rate. The total amount of dividend income influences the rate of income tax. Tax due is calculated based on total taxable income, including dividend income.

Dividends from UK Companies

Dividend income from UK companies is subject to taxation based on income tax rates. The tax rates vary depending on the taxpayer's total income, inclusive of dividend income, and the tax band they fall into. Basic rate taxpayers are subject to a lower tax rate on their dividend income, while high rate taxpayers are subject to a higher tax rate.

Dividends from Foreign Companies

Tax on dividend income from foreign companies aligns with UK tax rates. It is subject to personal tax allowance and follows the source of income rule. The tax rate varies based on total taxable income, similar to income tax rates. Understanding these tax implications is crucial for efficient tax planning and compliance.

Dividends in ISAs and Pensions

Dividend income within an ISA or pension is not subject to income tax, making it tax-free. It does not contribute to the personal tax allowance and is not eligible for tax credits. This tax-efficient way of receiving income does not impact the overall amount of income. Additionally, the dividend tax on income within an ISA or pension benefits from the tax-free allowance, further enhancing its efficiency.

Are Dividends Taxed within an ISA or Pension?

Dividends within an ISA or pension enjoy tax-free status, regardless of the income amount. This makes them a tax-efficient investment option. Additionally, dividend income within an ISA or pension is exempt from dividend tax, providing significant tax savings. Unlike other forms of income, such as salaries, dividends within an ISA or pension are not subject to income tax rates and tax bands.

Dividend Tax vs Salary Tax

Comparing tax on dividend income and salary involves different rates and bands, determined by total income. The tax rate for dividends differs from that for salary income. Understanding dividend tax versus salary tax entails calculating tax on total income, including dividends, accounting for separate taxation.

Comparing Taxation on Dividends and Salaries

When comparing taxation on dividends and salaries, it's important to note that income tax rates apply differently to each. The total income, inclusive of dividend income, determines the tax rate, unlike with salary tax. Additionally, the tax rate for dividend income differs from that of salary income, directly impacting the amount of tax due. Unlike salary income, tax credit on dividend income doesn't apply to the tax due.

Frequently Asked Questions

How much tax is owed on dividend income depends on overall earnings, tax band, and income tax rate. Dividend tax rates vary, impacting the amount of tax due on dividend income. Comprehending dividend tax rates ensures precise computation of tax owed on dividend income. Self-assessment of tax due on dividend income follows income tax rates. The tax return encompasses dividend income, tax due, and total taxable income, accounting for personal allowance.

Do I Need to Pay Capital Gains Tax on Shares?

Understanding the tax implications of share ownership is crucial. When selling shares for a profit, capital gains tax may apply. Different tax rates are based on income and gains from shares. Tax allowances and relief could reduce capital gains tax liability. Seek professional advice to optimize your tax position when selling shares.


To summarise, understanding how dividends are taxed in the UK is crucial for effective tax planning. Dividends are a form of investment income that can be received by eligible individuals. The dividend allowance determines the amount of tax-free dividends you can receive each year. It's important to stay updated on any changes to the dividend allowance and tax rates. Remember to consult with a tax professional for personalised advice.

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